It is one of the oldest Italian grapes ("Jupiter's blood"), for someone it was already known to the Etruscans. For a long time it was thought that this variety was of certain Tuscan origins, but recent DNA studies have confirmed the hypothesis that sangiovese comes from a cross between ciliegiolo and Calabrese montenuovo grape variety, probably in Campania. The first historical news of the presence of this grape are in the vine cultivation treatise and the fruit that can be derived from Soderini. It is undoubtedly the most common red grape in Italy, especially in the central regions of Tuscany, Umbria, Emilia Romagna and recently also in some southern areas, distinguishing itself in different clones and biotypes. There are many types of Sangiovese, but they can be divided into two categories: Sangiovese Grosso, the most precious, of which a limited quantity is cultivated, almost entirely in the area of Montalcino (SI), where it is called Brunello and in the area of Montepulciano (SI), where it takes the name of Prugnolo Gentile; Sangiovese Piccolo, the most common one, which takes various synonyms, depending on the areas, including Morellino near Scansano. But the number of clones is really huge and there is a clear difference between a Sangiovese of Romagna and a Tuscan or Umbrian. Abroad is cultivated in California (Napa Valley and Sonoma County), with good results; also it is well known in Argentina, especially in the province of Mendoza, but the wine produced is substantially different.
Features: tuscan sangiovese has medium leaf, pentagonal, pentalobata, upper page of light green, glossy, glabra, green side, very light green; long bunch, conic-pyramidal, with one or two wings, tend to be compact; medium, ovoid, very pruinose and black-violet.
Maturation: from late September to early October.
Productivity: quite abundant and consistent.
Synonyms: brunello, calabrese, cardisco, maglioppa, mercatale, morellino, morgan of Scansano, nerino, nielluccio in Corsica, red pincushion, fisternous, red fox, pruning, riminese, sangineto, sangiogheto, sangiovese from the long pip of Predappio, sweet sangiovese, Sangiovese gentle, sangiovese grosso, Sangiovese of Lamole, Sangiovese di Romagna, premortan Sangiovese, Chianti, Sangioveto, double sangioveto, sangioveto grosso in Tuscany, san zoveto and tignolo.
Biotypes: sangiovese romagnolo, tuscan sangiovese with small or strong acorn, tuscan sangiovese with big or brown oat, sangiovese of Grossetano or morellino, gentle plum; the recognized clones are a hundred.